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Computer science is the only STEM field where more than half of graduates are employed in their field. C6 Late in the book, as a girl in Gus's school takes him under her affectionate wing, the reader watches it all through Newman's trepidation, followed by the dawning recognition that her son is someone "who may never be able to be responsible for another life, but who is nevertheless capable of deep affection, caring and considering.

Sure, those emotions started with machinery and electronics -- trains, buses, iPods, computers -- and, particularly with Siri, a loving friend who never would hurt him. Hence, the title - drawn directly from a New York Times article Newman wrote in , about Gus's bond with Siri, Apple's "intelligent personal assistant," who could endlessly answer his questions, keep her son company and express -- in that flat, sweet Siri voice -- the gift of common courtesy.

It went viral and led to this book. In this chapter, late in the book, Newman gallops through all the continuing experiments that use technology to lift and unleash the autistic including my own effort to build augmentative technologies. This is fertile terrain, born of the gradual recognition that technology's great promise may in fact be to summon, capture and display our most human qualities, both the darkness and the light, to pave avenues of deepened connection with others.

Here's where the autistic, with their search for alternatives to traditional human connection, are actually innovators. Does it dehumanize us if tenderness is tried out first with a machine? While his hyper-aware twin is showing standard bright-future achievements, Gus tentatively feels his way through life. But make no mistake. Gus's deft fingers -- rendered with unsentimental affection by his mom -- are feeling things others will miss.

At one point, Gus says, "Good night, Siri, will you sleep well tonight? To Siri with Love: A12 A bronze statue's orphaned arm. A corroded disc adorned with a bull. These are among the latest treasures that date back to the dawn of the Roman Empire, discovered amid the ruins of the Antikythera shipwreck, a sunken bounty off the coast of a tiny island in Greece.

For decades people referred to it as a Roman shipwreck, like in Jacques Cousteau's documentary "Diving for Roman Plunder," but the team's findings since -- such as a chemical analysis of lead on the ship's equipment that trace it back to northern Greece and the personal possessions they found with Greek names etched on them -- are changing that narrative, Dr.

D1 When he returns home from the stadium, Philadelphia Phillies shortstop Freddy Galvis often gets into bed and watches reruns of "Friends. For at least one generation of Americans, "Friends" endures as a cultural touchstone, a glowing chunk of s amber. But its runaway popularity stretched far beyond the United States, and for some Latino baseball players it is something more: I stop it when I come to the stadium.

When I come home from the stadium, I pick up where I left off. D2 For Galvis, the English-language broadcast with Spanish subtitles on Venezuelan television, was an excellent learning tool. You might not learn percent, but you'll learn to associate. Like Flores, Galvis is evangelical about "Friends.

And although he is now a capable English speaker, he still watches "Friends" with subtitles in Spanish so that his wife can learn English. Marta Kauffman, one of the creators of the show, said she was delighted to hear about its unlikely and unintended impact on certain players.

She compared the phenomenon to how Viagra was originally designed to treat heart problems but later was embraced for a very different purpose. Zdenek Pelc did not really foresee, a generation ago, that vinyl records would one day make a return from near extinction. But he was smart enough to keep a vinyl record factory here, a relic of the Communist era, through all those years when albums gave way to CDs and then to iTunes and streaming, and to be ready when vinyl suddenly got hot again.

And that is why this village of 1,, nestled in a lush furl of the Bohemian hills, improbably finds itself a world leader in the production of vinyl albums. Pelc, 64, who now owns GZ Media and serves as president. The trajectory of the company -- and the village it once dominated -- traces the Czech Republic's transition to quirky capitalist colt from cranky Communist nag, all played to the kind of rock soundtrack that accompanies many modern Czech tales.

Instead of getting rid of the old equipment and moving CD-making machines into their space -- as most music production companies around the world did in the late s and early '90s -- Mr. Pelc kept only enough machines running to meet the dwindling demand, moving the rest into storage and cannibalizing their parts as needed. No one predicted this. Zimmerman's battery is a new spin on lithium-ion batteries, which are widely used in products from smartphones to cars. Today's lithium-ion batteries, as anyone who has followed Samsung's recent problems with flammable smartphones may know, can be ticking time bombs.

The liquids in them can burst into flames if there is a short circuit of some sort. And driving a nail into one of them is definitely not recommended. The company is working on "solid" lithium polymer batteries that greatly reduce their combustible nature.

A solid lithium polymer metal battery -- when it arrives commercially -- will also allow electronics designers to be more creative, because they will be able to use a plasticlike material the polymer that allows smaller and more flexible packaging and requires fewer complex safety mechanisms. After four years of development, he believes he is nearly there and hopes to begin manufacturing within the next two years.

Ionic Materials is one of a new wave of academic and commercial research ef- p. B4 forts in the United States, Europe and Asia to find safer battery technologies as consumers demand more performance from phones and cars. Zimmerman's background is in the world of semiconductors; he worked at Bell Labs and then a company called Quantum Leap Packaging. Several university researchers who have worked with the company believe that has lead him to a technology that will be more manufacturable than competing polymer and ceramic battery technologies now being explored.

The new progress has led a number of technologists in the field to believe that batteries may finally be getting out of their rut. B15 Oliver Smithies, a British-born biochemist and inveterate tinkerer who shared a Nobel Prize for discovering a powerful tool for identifying the roles of individual genes in health and disease, died on Tuesday [January 10, ] in Chapel Hill, N.

Smithies's discovery, known as gene targeting, allows scientists to disable individual genes in mice to understand what the genes do. The loss of a gene typically brings about changes in the appearance or the behavior of the mice, providing important clues about the gene's function. In addition to gene targeting, Dr.

Smithies invented a method of separating proteins with a jelly made from ordinary potato starch, a major advance that was cheaper, easier and more precise than existing technologies. His invention, called gel electrophoresis, is in wide use today. Smithies's breakthroughs were ingenious homemade contraptions cobbled from everyday objects and junk. He thought of himself as an inventor and toolmaker and acknowledged that he could not pass a rubbish bin without pausing to inspect the contents -- a trait he said he shared with his paternal grandfather, who used to pick up nails and straighten them for later use.

His tinkering did not go unnoticed. Colleagues at Oxford University, where Dr. Smithies, the process of invention was straightforward. On a quiet Palo Alto street lined with multimillion-dollar Victorian and craftsman homes, Spanish villas, lemon trees and sidewalks perfect for jogging or strolling with babies in carriages, a National Register of Historic Places sign in one front yard recognizes the home's famous roots.

In the detached garage of the house, the Silicon Valley was seeded. The garage is where two Stanford students, William R. Hewlett and David Packard, began developing their first product, an audio oscillator, in Their partnership resulted in the establishment in of the Hewlett-Packard Company, a manufacturer of software and computer services.

What Berry Gordy Jr. A quiet, dark, cool room is the ideal environment for sleeping well, Mr. Create this ambience by having ear plugs to block noise, using the blackout blinds your room likely has and setting the temperature to between 64 and 66 degrees Fahrenheit. The first sentence quoted above is the slightly longer version that is online; not the slightly shorter version in the print edition. But Buffett was one of 87 witnesses who testified on behalf of the International Business Machines Corp.

In his testimony, Buffett said he asked the Price, Waterhouse accounting firm to calculate the debt levels of other computer-oriented companies that, according to federal prosecutors, were harmed by IBM's low prices and other alleged anti-competitive actions.

Buffett said his hypothesis was that the competing companies had trouble raising money to finance their growth because they had too much debt. The accounting analy- p. Because, he told the court, with high-tech companies it's "particularly difficult to have a clear view of a long-term future. High-technology companies are ones where both the product and the customer's use of it are areas in which I don't feel I have a full understanding.

After the disaster, Chipotle hired Prof. James Marsden of Kansas State University's renowned food safety program. By the details released so far, the company has indeed begun experimenting with kill steps. These include blanching--dipping produce in boiling water--or spritzing with "natural" pathogen-neutralizers like lemon juice. Certain tasks have also been shifted to a central, McDonald's -style kitchen and away from the local restaurant, though the company says certain steps were reversed when customers complained about the taste or appearance of their meals.

Many in the food-safety camp are already keen on more-energetic kill steps, such as irradiation, chemical treatment with ozone or chlorine compounds, or the use of high-barometric-pressure systems. A KSU study put volunteers in a test kitchen to see if they could follow directions safely to prepare frozen, uncooked, breaded chicken products. While acknowledging that advances in technology may hurt employment in some industries, they concluded that "country-level employment generally grows as aggregate productivity rises.

The historical record provides strong support for this view. After all, despite centuries of progress in automation and recurrent warnings of a jobless future, total employment has continued to increase relentlessly, even with bumps along the way.

More remarkable is the fact that today's most dire projections of jobs lost to automation fall short of historical norms.

Workers suffering some of the largest losses included office clerks, secretaries and telephone operators. They found similar levels of displacement in the decades after the introduction of railroads and the automobile.

Who is old enough to remember bowling alley pin-setters? When was the last time you heard a manager say, "Take a memo"? Not by a long shot. What all of these tasks have in common is that they involve finding subtle patterns in very large collections of data, a process that goes by the name of machine learning.

But it is misleading to characterize all of this as some extraordinary leap toward duplicating human intelligence.

The selfie app in your phone that places bunny ears on your head doesn't "know" anything about you. For its purposes, your meticulously posed image is just a bundle of bits to be strained through an algorithm that determines where to place Snapchat face filters.

These programs present no more of a threat to human primacy than did automatic looms, phonographs and calculators, all of which were greeted with astonishment and trepidation by the workers they replaced when first introduced. The irony of the coming wave of artificial intelligence is that it may herald a golden age of personal service. If history is a guide, this remarkable technology won't spell the end of work as we know it.

Instead, artificial intelligence will change the way that we live and work, improving our standard of living while shuffling jobs from one category to another in the familiar capitalist cycle of creation and destruction. The David Autor paper, mentioned above, is: Autor, David, and Anna Salomons. Technological Disruption and the U. What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press, On Tuesday [July 25, ] Toyota said that by the early s it planned to sell cars equipped with solid-state batteries, which replace the damp electrolyte used to transport lithium ions inside today's batteries with a solid glass-like plate.

Behind Toyota's brief statement lay years of research aimed at solving issues that have long bedeviled batteries for electric cars. Current lithium-ion batteries can't be packed too tightly together because of fire risk. That is one reason electric cars tend to have limited range compared with traditional gasoline-powered cars. With the solid-state battery, "you can improve the output and reduce the charge time--hopefully," said Ryoji Kanno, a professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology.

Kanno led a team including Toyota scientists that discovered the materials for the glass-like electrolyte. A15 Most computer scientists agree that predictions about robots stealing jobs are greatly exaggerated. Rather than worrying about an impending Singularity, consider instead what we might call Multiplicity: Multiplicity is not science fiction. A combination of machine learning, the wisdom of crowds, and cloud computing already underlies tasks Americans perform every day: Consider Google's search engine.

It runs on a set of algorithms with input from a large number of human users who share valuable feedback every time they click on or skip over a link. The same is true for spam filters. Every time someone marks an email as spam or overrides a filter, it helps fine-tune the system for determining what is relevant.

Multiplicity is collaborative instead of combative. Rather than discourage the human workers of the world, this new frontier has the potential to empower them. R4 Kian Sadeghi has postponed homework assignments, sports practice and all the other demands of being a year-old high-school junior for today. On a Saturday afternoon, he is in a lab learning how to use Crispr-Cas9, a gene-editing technique that has electrified scientists around the world Genspace, the Brooklyn, N. More than 80 people have taken the classes since the lab started offering them last year.

In the workshop, if the participants correctly edit the gene in brewer's yeast, the cells will turn red. In between the prep work, the classmates swap stories on why they are there. Many have personal Crispr projects in mind and want to learn the technique. Kevin Wallenstein, a chemical engineer, takes a two-hour train ride to the lab from his home in Princeton, N. Crispr is a hobby for him, he says.

He wants to eventually use it to edit a gene in an edible fruit that he prefers not to name, to restore it to its historical color. At the workshop, Mr. Wallenstein shares his Crispr goal with Will Shindel, Genspace's lab director. Shindel is enthusiastic; he has started his own Crispr project, a longtime dream to make a spicy tomato.

Both men say they aren't looking to commercialize their ideas--but they would like to eat what they create someday, if they get permission from the lab. Sadeghi first wanted to try Crispr, the teenager emailed 20 scientists asking if they would be willing to let him learn Crispr in their labs. Most didn't respond; those that did turned him down.

So he did a Google search and stumbled upon Genspace. When he shared the lead with his science teacher at the Berkeley Carroll School in Brooklyn, Essy Levy Sefchovich, she agreed to take the course with him. Shindel describes the steps of the experiment, Ms. She is hoping to create a modified version of the yeast experiment so all her students can try Crispr in class. Sadeghi recounts that the hardest part of the day was handling the micropipette, the lab tool he used to mix small amounts of liquid.

He says he still feels clumsy. Sefchovich reassures him he'll get the hang of it; he just needs to practice. Sadeghi doesn't have his driver's license yet. He figures he'll do Crispr first.

Fast, Cheap--and Worrisome; The Crispr technique lets amateurs enter a world that has been the exclusive domain of scientists. Hundreds of thousands of people from around the world have downloaded Hand of Fate, an action video game made by his studio in Brisbane, Defiant Development.

But when Defiant worked with an audio designer in Melbourne, more than 1, miles away, Mr. Jaffit knew it would be quicker to send a hard drive by road than to upload the files, which could take several days.

Jaffit, the company's co-founder and creative director. Australia, a wealthy nation with a widely envied quality of life, lags in one essential area of modern life: In the most recent ranking of internet speeds by Akamai, a networking company, Australia came in at an embarrassing No.

The story of Australia's costly internet bungle illustrates the hazards of mingling telecommunication infrastructure with the impatience of modern politics. The internet modernization plan has been hobbled by cost overruns, partisan maneuvering and a major technical compromise that put 19th-century technology between the country's 21st-century digital backbone and many of its homes and businesses.

The government-led push to modernize its telecommunications system was unprecedented, experts say -- and provides a cautionary tale for others who might like to try something similar. When he arrived, a professor warned him that he was already too old to succeed in the field.

Goodenough recounted that story for me and then laughed uproariously. He ignored the professor's advice and today, at 94, has just set the tech industry abuzz with his blazing creativity.

He and his team at the University of Texas at Austin filed a patent application on a new kind of battery that, if it works as promised, would be so cheap, lightweight and safe that it would revolutionize electric cars and kill off petroleum-fueled vehicles. His announcement has caused a stir, in part, because Dr.

Goodenough has done it before. In , at age 57, he coinvented the lithium-ion battery that shrank power into a tiny package. We tend to assume that creativity wanes with age. Goodenough's story suggests that some people actually become more creative as they grow older. Unfortunately, those late-blooming geniuses have to contend with powerful biases against them. Years ago, he decided to create a solid battery that would be safer. Of course, in a perfect world, the "solid-state" battery would also be low-cost and lightweight.

Then, two years ago, he discovered the work of Maria Helena Braga, a Portuguese physicist who, with the help of a colleague, had created a kind of glass that can replace liquid electrolytes inside batteries. Braga to move to Austin and join his lab. Then we were off to the races," he said.

Some of his colleagues were dubious that he could pull it off. Goodenough was not dissuaded. You have to test out every possibility if you want something new. When I asked him about his late-life success, he said: But the turtles have to keep on walking. Goodenough started in physics and hopped sideways into chemistry and materials science, while also keeping his eye on the social and political trends that could drive a green economy.

B4 Single, childless and 68, Steven Gold has begun to think about future mobility and independence. Although in good health, he can foresee a time when he won't be a confident driver, if he can drive at all. While he hopes to continue to live in his suburban Detroit home, he wonders how he will be able to get to places like his doctor's office and the supermarket if his driving becomes impaired.

The number of United States residents age 70 and older is projected to increase to Nearly 16 million people 65 and older live in communities where public transportation is poor or nonexistent. That number is expected to grow rapidly as baby boomers remain outside of cities.

He said that 70 percent of those over age 50 live in the suburbs, a figure he expects to remain steady despite a recent rise in moves to urban centers. Further, 92 percent of older people want to age in place, he said. Slowing automatically to keep from hitting the car ahead felt like a magic trick. Every fiber of my body wanted to stomp on the brake pedal. Instead, the car did it for me.

Automatic braking is mind-bending the first time. So is lane-keeping assist, which nudges the car back between the road stripes if you wander. Automatic high-beam headlamps, too. D4 Most people, when they think of steam power, they think of rusty farm tractors from years ago.

But there's such a thing as modern steam power. Steam is the most direct way to get power out of heat. You can't build an internal combustion engine in your garage. But you can build a steam engine, and the interesting thing is, it can run on anything that will burn, even sawdust. At my farm, I have about steam engines, many of them homemade, plus a library of technical papers, patents, and books on steam technology. I have Volkswagen engines converted to steam, outboard boat engines, etc.

I collect and preserve this stuff. I get a lot of it from old widows whose deceased husbands were tinkerers; these women are so happy to get rid of it. Some of the engines are well built, others not, but you can learn as much from a bad example as a good one. Kimmel, Tom as told to A. D3 Scientists in Australia, one of the sunniest places on the planet, have discovered a way to rid clothes of stubborn stains by exposing them to sunlight, potentially replacing doing the laundry.

Working in a laboratory, the researchers embedded minute flecks of silver and copper--invisible to the naked eye--within cotton fabric.

When exposed to light, the tiny metal particles, or nanostructures, released bursts of energy that degraded any organic matter on the fabric in as little as six minutes, said Rajesh Ramanathan, a postdoctoral fellow at RMIT University, in Melbourne.

The development, reported recently in the journal Advanced Materials Interfaces, represents an early stage of research into nano-enhanced fabrics that have the ability to clean themselves, Dr. The tiny metal particles don't change the look or feel of the fabric. They also stay on the surface of the garment even when it is rinsed in water, meaning they can be used over and over on new grime, he said.

The Promise of Self-Cleaning Fabric. Field, Rajesh Ramanathan, and Vipul Bansal. Now that company, Blue Origin, finally has its first paying customer as it ramps up to become a full-fledged business. Bezos announced that customer, the satellite television provider Eutelsat, on Tuesday. In about five years, Eutelsat, which is based in Paris, will strap one of its satellites to a new Blue Origin rocket to be delivered to space, a process it has done dozens of times with other space partners.

Blue Origin's deal with Eutelsat is a "definite statement to the industry that Blue Origin will be a viable commercial launch vehicle," said Carissa Bryce Christensen, the chief executive of Bryce Space and Technology, a consulting firm.

Bezos "is investing because he wants to transform people's lives with space capabilities, but the expectation has always been that this will be a successful business," Ms.

With such high costs and risks with each rocket launch, it is important not to skip steps, he said. Bezos, who also owns The Washington Post and a clock that will keep time for 10, years. B3 A Bay Area food-technology startup says it has created the world's first chicken strips grown from self-reproducing cells without so much as ruffling a feather.

And the product pretty much tastes like chicken, according to people who were offered samples Tuesday [March 14, ] in San Francisco, before Memphis Meats Inc. Replace billions of cattle, hogs and chickens with animal meat they say can be grown more efficiently and humanely in stainless-steel bioreactor tanks. Some who sampled the strip--breaded, deep-fried and spongier than a whole chicken breast--said it nearly nailed the flavor of the traditional variety. They would eat it again.

The cell-cultured meat startups are a long way from replacing the meat industry's global network of hatcheries, chicken barns, feed mills and processing plants. But they say they're making progress. That is half of what it cost the company to produce its beef meatball about a year ago. The startups, however, aspire to produce meat that can be cost-competitive with the conventionally raised kind. C5 Marconi is another example of the Victorian "self-made man," in this case a precocious youth fascinated by electricity and electrical wave pulses.

Sending the letter "S" in Morse code to his assistant, Mignani, on the far side of the meadow several hundred yards away was great, but not enough. What if, instead, Mignani took the receiver to the other side of the hill, out of sight of the house, and then fired a gunshot if the pulses got through? I waited to give Mignani time to get to his place.

Then breathlessly I tapped the key three times. Then from the other side of the hill came the sound of a shot. That was the moment when wireless was born. A combination of technological insight, organizational skill and business acumen gave him, like Steve Jobs in the next century, his place in history. To the end of his life Marconi was driven by a vision of the whole world communicating through wireless waves in the air.

Raboy exhaustively if deftly tells the tale of the next few critical years: Marconi's long stay in England, the search for funding without losing control , the critical establishment of patents, the embrace by officials in the British Post Office and Royal Navy, the ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship wireless transmissions.

There's a fine chapter on the critical long-range, trans-Atlantic experiments in These were conducted in wintry, gusty Newfoundland, whose supportive provincial government grasped almost immediately what Marconi offered: Little wonder that such powerful entities as the state-subsidized Anglo-American Telegraph Co.

In , at the age of 35, the Italian entrepreneur would stand up proudly to receive the Nobel Prize in physics. The Man Who Networked the World. The TED talk embedded above, is one of my favorites. I sometimes show an abbreviated version to my Economics of Technology seminar. The cause was pancreatic cancer, according to Gapminder, a foundation he established to generate and disseminate demystified data using images. Rosling often capsulized the macroeconomics of energy and the environment in a favorite anecdote about the day a washing machine was delivered to his family's cold-water flat.

The machine will make the work. And now we can go to the library. You load the laundry, and what do you get out of the machine? You get books out of the machines, children's books. And Mother got time to read to me. And thank you, chemical processing industry that gave us time to read books.

B3 In the semiconductor business, it is called the "red brick wall" -- the limit of the industry's ability to shrink transistors beyond a certain size.

On Thursday, however, IBM scientists reported that they now believe they see a path around the wall. Writing in the journal Science, a team at the company's Thomas J. Watson Research Center said it has found a new way to make transistors from parallel rows of carbon nanotubes. The advance is based on a new way to connect ultrathin metal wires to the nanotubes that will make it possible to continue shrinking the width of the wires without increasing electrical resistance.

One of the principal challenges facing chip makers is that resistance and heat increase as wires become smaller, and that limits the speed of chips, which contain transistors. The advance would make it possible, probably sometime after the beginning of the next decade, to shrink the contact point between the two materials to just 40 atoms in width, the researchers said.

Three years later, the number will shrink to just 28 atoms, they predicted. The switching speed of computer chips stopped increasing because heat created by ultrafast processors was rising to the point where the chips would break. More recently, for most of the industry, the cost of transistors has ceased to decline with each new generation. This has undercut the tremendous power of the technology to create new markets. And this year, Intel announced that the challenges and costs of bringing a new generation of technology to market had forced it to slow the every-two-year pace it had been on for more than a decade.

Tulevski, Jianshi Tang, and Wilfried Haensch. B3 Entrepreneur Elon Musk unveiled his contrarian vision for sending humans to Mars in roughly the next decade, and ultimately setting up colonies there, relying on bold moves by private enterprise, instead of more-gradual steps previously proposed by Washington. Musk--who in 14 years transformed his closely held rocket company, Space Exploration Technologies Corp.

The boosters would return to Earth, blast off again into the heavens with "tanker" spaceships capable of refueling the initial vehicles, and then send those serviced spacecraft on their way to the Red Planet. The rockets would be twice as powerful as the Saturn 5 boosters that sent U. Each fully developed spacecraft likely would carry between and passengers, Mr.

A13 Until the mids, the internet was little more than an arcane set of technical standards used by academics. Few predicted the profound effect it would have on society. Today, blockchain--the technology behind the digital currency bitcoin--might seem like a trinket for computer geeks.

But once widely adopted, it will transform the world. Blockchain offers a way to track items or transactions using a shared digital "ledger. This is significantly more efficient than the current methods for logging and sharing such information. Consider the process of buying a house, a complex transaction involving banks, attorneys, title companies, insurers, regulators, tax agencies and inspectors.

They all maintain separate records, and it's costly to verify and record each step. That's why the average closing takes roughly 50 days. Blockchain offers a solution: Beranek, an engineer whose company designed the acoustics for the United Nations and concert halls at Lincoln Center and Tanglewood, then built the direct precursor to the internet under contract to the Defense Department, died on Oct. After the war, Dr. Beranek was recruited to teach at M.

Beranek and Robert Newman, a former student of Dr. The company was conceived as a center for leading-edge acoustic research. Beranek changed its direction in the s to include a focus on the nascent computer age. Beranek said in a interview for this obituary. Licklider, a pioneering computer scientist from M. Licklider who persuaded him that the company needed to get involved in computers.

Licklider, the company developed one of the best software research groups in the country and won many critical projects with the Department of Defense, NASA, the National Institutes of Health and other government agencies.

Licklider left in , the company became a favored destination for a new generation of software developers and was often referred to as the third university in Cambridge. With the PC, I could see that computers were fun, and that is the real reason why all innovations come into widespread use. Mokyr says innovators gravitate to society's greatest needs.

In previous eras, it was cheap and rapid transport, reliable energy, and basic health care. Today, seven of the top 10 problems he says are most in need of innovative solutions are instances of bite-back. They include global warming, antibiotic resistance, obesity and information overload. Fixing these problems may weigh heavily on growth. Mokyr argues past productivity was overstated because it didn't include those costs. Nonetheless, he's an optimist.

For every unintended consequence one innovation brings, another innovation will find the answer. Fluoridation cured tooth decay, and automotive engineers found alternatives to leaded gasoline.

Driverless cars may take care of that plague before long. The Cost of Innovation. Mice, voles and gophers love vineyards. Jackson said, walking through rows of cabernet grapes. Grapes ripen earlier, and swallows and crows are eating fruit before the harvest. That explains the owls. Sixty-eight boxes are occupied by hungry barn owls; during the harvest, a falconer comes to some vineyards every day, launching a bird of prey to scare away other birds with a taste for grapes.

The Jacksons have also begun analyzing their crops with increasingly sensitive tools. Jackson recently installed devices that measure how much sap is in the vines.

They transmit the data over cellular networks to headquarters, where software calculates how much water specific areas of vineyards do or don't need. The Jacksons are also monitoring their crops using drones equipped with sensors that detect moisture by evaluating the colors of vegetation.

The wrong color can indicate nutritional deficiencies in the crops, or irrigation leaks. The drones have other uses, too. An infrared camera can scan for people guarding illicit marijuana operations on nearby lands. Not all the changes being made on the Jackson vineyards involve advanced technology. Some are simply ancient farming techniques that the drought has made increasingly relevant.

Field hands plant cover crops, like rye and barley, between every second row of vines, to help keep the soil healthy. The family is stepping up its composting program.

Pressed grapes are composted, then placed beneath rows of vines, since the organic matter is better at retaining moisture than soil. Jackson's husband, Shaun Kajiwara, is a vineyard manager for the company, overseeing the grapes that go into many of the upscale labels. Kajiwara believes that with the right mix of new rootstocks, cover crops and fortuitous rainfall, some of the Jackson vineyards might not need irrigation at all.

It is a snapshot of the future for the Jackson family: And, in combination with the adaptations Ms. Jackson has put in place, it might just be enough to allow the company to keep making fine wines for many years to come. A Winery Battles Climate Change.

A15 "Beyond Earth" is delightfully different from any other book I've ever read by human-spaceflight cheerleaders. The authors have put their thinking caps on and broken out of the usual orthodoxy by presenting cogent ideas on why humans should go into space, including their lovely idea of going to and living on obscure to most folks Titan.

We go, they say, because we need to go, not just to explore and study but to find another place to live and, if we want to, screw it up just as much as we have screwed up Earth, because that's what we do, that's what makes us human.

We may make mistakes but, by God, we also produce great civilizations and art and, yes, science in the process. We've done Earth, so let's now go wherever our abilities take us and physics allow. The one great truth I always tell people wanting to understand the American space program is this: The federal government doesn't give a flip about human spaceflight. That's why Apollo was canceled just as it hit its stride, why the shuttle program was underfunded from its inception, and why, after the shuttle was retired, NASA had nothing to replace it with.

No one who holds the purse strings for NASA really cares whether American astronauts ever go anywhere. It's just not that important to a country beset with a vast array of pressing problems. What keeps the current space program going at all is pure pork-barrel politics. That's why President Obama didn't blink an eye when he signed NASA budgets that provided funds to build a giant rocket called the Space Launch System, which has no well-defined purpose, as well as a crewed capsule called Orion, which has no specifically assigned places to go.

As proof that spending money isn't evidence of support, there wasn't one dime in those budgets to procure and deliver the accouterments needed for true human space endeavors--no space suits, no planetary landers, no rovers, no habitats, nothing but the bottom and top of a big, expensive rocket that will require a vast marching army to operate for no apparent reason.

Wohlforth, Charles, and Hendrix. Our Path to a New Home in the Planets. C16 "What is true in the consumer tech industry is true in science and other fields of thinking," Mr.

Horses, for example, are once again being used in warfare in the Middle East. Vinyl records are back after losing out to digital CDs and internet streaming. Leeches, whose use was once considered a barbaric medieval practice, are now an FDA-approved "medical device" for cleaning wounds.

Bicycles are making a comeback as a popular and efficient means of moving about in large, crowded cities. Blimps are starting to compete with helicopters for moving heavy cargo. To understand this process of rediscovery--"old is the new new"--we need to abandon the myth of progress as something that results from a rejection of all that is old. Still, not all old ideas will return reconfigured into new and useful ones, and it is here where readers may find room for disagreement, despite Mr.

That there are many unsolved mysteries in science does not always mean that we should turn to the past for insight. Sometimes--usually, in fact--the bad ideas rejected by science belong in the graveyard. Phlogiston, miasma, spontaneous generation, the luminiferous aether--wrong, wrong, wrong and wrong.

Nevertheless, those notions--and many others that Mr. Poole surveys in this thought-provoking book--were wrong in ways that led scientists toward a better understanding, and the middle chapters of "Rethink" elegantly recount these stories.

Poole ends by suggesting that we adopt a "view from tomorrow" in which we "try to consider an idea free of the moral weight that attaches to it in particular historical circumstances" and that "we could try to get into the habit of deferring judgments about ideas more generally" in order to keep an open mind. On the flip side, skeptics should not rush to dismiss a consensus idea as wrong just because consensus science is not always right.

Most of today's ideas gained consensus in the first place for a very good reason: Do you know what we call alternative science with evidence? The Surprising History of New Ideas. If necessity is the mother of invention, why did it take 2, years for necessity to give birth? Why did they stop after having great success for a great time? To answer these questions, Dr.

Montenegro and his colleagues ran numerous voyage simulations and concluded that the Long Pause that delayed humans from reaching Hawaii, Tahiti and New Zealand occurred because the early explorers were unable to sail through the strong winds that surround Tonga and Samoa.

They reported their results last week in the journal of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. A 2,Year Pause in Exploring Oceania. Callaghan, and Scott M. By reframing recuperative tasks such as going for a walk, reconnecting with a friend or writing a short story as gamelike quests, healing can be systematized.

Moreover, when you begin to tackle these life quests McGonigal provides nearly examples you will, she writes, enter a "gameful" state, becoming more optimistic, creative, courageous and determined. By applying the psychological attributes that games unlock to real-world scenarios, we become like Mario as he guzzles a power-up and transforms into Super Mario. McGonigal's promises come thick and early, propped up by the results of two clinical studies.

The day program contained in the book will, she writes, "significantly" reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety and decrease suffering.

It will increase optimism, make you "more satisfied" and even lead, incredibly, to a life "free of regret. The silicon transistor, the tiny switch that is the building block of modern microelectronics, replaced the vacuum tube in many consumer products in the s. Now as shrinking transistors to even more Lilliputian dimensions is becoming vastly more challenging, the vacuum tube may be on the verge of a comeback.

The Achilles' heel of today's transistors is the smaller they get, the more they leak electrons. In modern computer chips, as much as half of the power consumed is lost to electrons leaking from transistors that are only dozens of atoms wide.

Those electrons waste energy and generate heat. Scherer's miniature vacuum tube switches perform a jujitsu move by using the same mechanism that causes leakage in transistors -- known by physicists as quantum tunneling -- to switch on and off the flow of electrons without leakage.

As a result, he believes that modern vacuum tube circuits have the potential to use less power and work faster than today's transistor-based chips. Vacuum tubes are one of a range of ideas that engineers are looking at as they work to create chips that can do more while using less power. Other promising approaches include exotic materials such as carbon nanotubes and even microscopic mechanical switches that can be opened and closed just like an electronic gate.

A9 Blockchains are basically a much better way of managing information. They are distributed ledgers, run on multiple computers all over the world, for recording transactions in a way that is fast, limitless, secure and transparent. There is no central database overseen by a single institution responsible for auditing and recording what goes on.

If you and I were to engage in a transaction, it would be executed, settled and recorded on the blockchain and evident for all to see, yet encrypted so as to be villain-proof. No more waiting for that check to clear. It would all be done and recorded for eternity before you know it. The digital currency bitcoin is currently the best-known blockchain technology. If I wanted to pay you using bitcoin, I would start with a bitcoin wallet on my computer or phone and buy bitcoins using dollars.

I would then send you a message identifying the bitcoin I would like to send you and sign the transaction using a private key. The heavily encrypted reassignment of the bitcoin to your wallet is recorded and verified in the bitcoin ledger for all to see, and they are now yours to spend. The transaction is likely more secure and cheaper than a traditional bank transfer. Right now, Google and Facebook reap the profit. Tapscott, Don, and Alex Tapscott. Okada is an entrepreneur with a vision of creating the first trash collection company dedicated to cleaning up some of humanity's hardest-to-reach rubbish: He launched Astroscale three years ago in the belief that national space agencies were dragging their feet in facing the problem, which could be tackled more quickly by a small private company motivated by profit.

Okada, 43, who put Astroscale's headquarters in start-up-friendly Singapore but is building its spacecraft in his native Japan, where he found more engineers. D3 "The projects all smelled like government, not crisp or quick," he said of conferences he attended to learn about other efforts. He also said that Astroscale would start by contracting with companies that will operate big satellite networks to remove their own malfunctioning satellites. He said that if a company has a thousand satellites, several are bound to fail.

Astroscale will remove these, allowing the company to fill the gap in its network by replacing the failed unit with a functioning satellite. A Japanese Entrepreneur Wants the Job. The idea was greeted skeptically in scientific circles and ignored by funding agencies. But one outfit with deep pockets, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, eventually paid attention, hoping the research might help alleviate global poverty.

Now, after several years of work funded by the foundation, the scientists are reporting a remarkable result. Using genetic engineering techniques to alter photosynthesis, they increased the productivity of a test plant -- tobacco -- by as much as 20 percent, they said Thursday[November 17, ] in a study published by the journal Science. That is a huge number, given that plant breeders struggle to eke out gains of 1 or 2 percent with more conventional approaches.

The scientists have no interest in increasing the production of tobacco; their plan is to try the same alterations in food crops, and one of the leaders of the work believes production gains of 50 percent or more may ultimately be achievable. If that prediction is borne out in further research -- it could take a decade, if not longer, to know for sure -- the result might be nothing less than a transformation of global agriculture. A24 the farmers need, and how can we help them get there?

One of the leaders of the research, Stephen P. Long, a crop scientist who holds appointments at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and at Lancaster University in England, emphasized in an interview that a long road lay ahead before any results from the work might reach farmers' fields.

Long is also convinced that genetic engineering could ultimately lead to what he called a "second Green Revolution" that would produce huge gains in food production, like the original Green Revolution of the s and s, which transferred advanced agricultural techniques to some developing countries and led to reductions in world hunger.

The work is, in part, an effort to secure the food supply against the possible effects of future climate change. If rising global temperatures cut the production of food, human society could be destabilized, but more efficient crop plants could potentially make the food system more resilient, Dr.

Gabilly, Masakazu Iwai, Krishna K. Niyogi, and Stephen P. And as someone who worked at both Oracle and Salesforce, his exhibit A is these two companies. To Oracle, which is primarily a database company, Salesforce is just a "hosted database app," he wrote. It helps to understand that in tech, the "stack" is the layer cake of technology, one level of abstraction sitting atop the next, that ultimately delivers a product or service to the user.

On the Internet, for example, there is a stack of technologies stretching from the server through the operating system running on it through a cloud abstraction layer and then the apps running atop that, until you reach the user.

Even the electricity grid required to power the data center in which the server lives could be considered part of the technology "stack" of, say, your favorite email service.

The reason that companies fail when they try to move up the stack is simple, argues Mr. They don't have firsthand empathy for what customers of the product one level above theirs in the stack actually want.

Database engineers at Oracle don't know what supply-chain managers at Fortune companies want out of an enterprise resource-planning system like SAP, but that hasn't stopped Oracle from trying to compete in that space.

Princeton University Press, A6 Nearly half a century ago, archaeologists found a charred ancient scroll in the ark of a synagogue on the western shore of the Dead Sea. The lump of carbonized parchment could not be opened or read.

Its curators did nothing but conserve it, hoping that new technology might one day emerge to make the scroll legible. Just such a technology has now been perfected by computer scientists at the University of Kentucky. Working with biblical scholars in Jerusalem, they have used a computer to unfurl a digital image of the scroll. It turns out to hold a fragment identical to the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible and, at nearly 2, years old, is the earliest instance of the text.

The writing retrieved by the computer from the digital image of the unopened scroll is amazingly clear and legible, in contrast to the scroll's blackened and beaten-up exterior.

Scholars say this remarkable new technique may make it possible to read other scrolls too brittle to be unrolled.

The experts say this new method may make it possible to read other ancient scrolls, including several Dead Sea scrolls and about carbonized ones from Herculaneum, which were destroyed by the volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A. The feat of recovering the text was made possible by software programs developed by W.

Brent Seales, a computer scientist at the University of Kentucky. Inspired by the hope of reading the many charred and unopenable scrolls found at Herculaneum, near Pompeii in Italy, Dr.

Seales has been working for the last 13 years on ways to read the text inside an ancient scroll. He succeeded in in working out the physical structure of the ruffled layers of papyrus in a Herculaneum scroll. He has since developed a method, called virtual unwrapping, to model the surface of an ancient scroll in the form of a mesh of tiny triangles. Each triangle can be resized by the computer until the virtual surface makes the best fit to the internal structure of the scroll, as revealed by the scanning method.

The blobs of ink are assigned to their right place on the structure, and the computer then unfolds the whole 3-D structure into a 2-D sheet. McLinden is a member of a group of middle-aged emergency workers taking part in a trial to jump-start the use of unmanned aircraft by Europe's emergency services.

The goal is to give the region a head start over the United States and elsewhere in using drones to tackle real-world emergencies. The "drone school" builds on Europe's worldwide lead in giving public groups and companies relatively free rein to experiment with unmanned aircraft. If everything goes as planned, the project's backers hope government agencies in Europe and farther afield can piggyback on the experiences, helping to transform drones from recreational toys to lifesaving tools.

McLinden, who traveled to Copenhagen p. In a somewhat stuffy classroom at a disused fire station in Copenhagen, Thomas Sylvest gave advice to Mr. McLinden and others from his two years of flying. As Denmark's first, and so far only, emergency service drone pilot, Mr. Sylvest has responded to things as varied as missing person cases and fires, often receiving calls late at night. Sylvest, a fast-talking year-old, offered tips on how best to share videos streamed directly from drones to commanders on the ground.

During a recent fire in downtown Copenhagen, Mr. Sylvest said, he was able to beam high-definition images from high above, allowing his bosses to judge if a building's walls would collapse they did not. Black soil Slot 3, Slot 8??? Ephemeral Node 5am clear sky? Lvl 50 Unspoiled node: Old World Fig can be obtained at 26,12 Dravanian Forelands at 2 pm - 2. Honestly don't like how the Mega Thread is with all the kinds of information in it When I only care about this information here! From what I've noticed Ephemeral nodes spawn at certain hours.

Within that time you can respawn ephemeral node by gathering nodes around it 3 are enough, though sometimes i needed only 2. From my observations they spawn close to nodes in specific area in SAME location always. I found an Ephemeral Node in Dravanian Hinterlands at 8 am and it stayed until 12 am so 4 hrs seems to be right. Also always spawned at the same position. Will provide screenshot in a few hours.

Can confirm 12 pm spawn and slots. Do you need to have flying unlocked to reach this node? I can only assume it requires the second entrace, but is flying required as well? Dravanian Mistletoe slot 3? Not really sure about slots but rest is ok. Hey another unspoiled node in Azys Lla: I couldn't HQ Adamantite last time i checked which was probably around perception.

I have now and will check soon. I have found some information about the Ephemeral spawns, so figured I would share it here with you guys. I actually found that spawn in The Churning Mists, around the 29, It seems to spawn at around The cool thing is that the spawn keeps appearing every 2 nodes you gather from around it in the different locations during those 4 hours it is 'up'. I tested this multiple times now with this spawn, as well as another. It spawns at 12am - 4am, following the same rule.

It spawns at 8pm - 12pm -- Merits Duskborne Aethersand when applied with reduction. Coerthas central highlands - Riversmeet for the botanist logging locations.

You can get Cedar logs and branches. Have you figured out hwo the collectible things work yet? No, I think you need a special skill for collectibles or talk to Rowena first.

I guess we will find out as we continue with the quests. Fortune for HQ items, so before you activate the skill for higher fortune you might check that. There's a quest you do that gives you the skills "collector's glove", "methodical appraisal", and "discerning eye".

Where did you get those quests? I did my miner's quest but now I have to level him to 52 first to continue. For botanist, it was a quest called "call from the clouds" It was in Ishgard, though I cant remember if it was in the pillars of foundation. I can turn in yellow copper ore, its an unspoiled spawning at 12am. Also Old World Fig as botanist seems to be collectable. Im at the chocobo forest and the entire left side is blocked off by mountains.

From what I've noticed for the most part is that only unspoiled nodes are collectibles. Would recommend to use the Megathread for this topic http: It says in the post: You have to do the quest given to you in foundation.

It will lead you to mor dhona where you will get the three required skills. The quest is called "Inscrutable Taste" I dunno if it is the same for botanists. Do I need to level my btn to lvl 55 to unlock the unspoiled nodes? I never do high lvl gathering before. I think if you can gather normal 50 nodes from arr you should be fine. For starsilver 55 ilvl i think. Hmm, thats strange because the recipes that need hardsilver ore are way lower in level. Thanks for the information though!

Possible they're unlocked in some other manner as well, although it's kinda vital you've done MSQ up to that part as it's an integral part of what's in that area. No idea, I think no. Even though they spawn twice it is way too much downtime doing nothing in between. If you have allowances, do leves.

I though keep the leves for leveling my crafters later on. I basically just grind grind grind and try to take every collectable I can. As for rotation I didn't find anything special either. That leaves me with 3 collectables I can gather. Note I have MGP. Yeah, even though the skill description said the rarity increases seem high, but it only ran from points per Appraisal.

And I never get pass , my highest only lol. One question about the crafting leves. You doing lv 51 item leves even when your crafting lv is 50 and the chance to HQ is low?

Do the old level 45 crafting leves until you hit Once you hit 51 the new recipes even the first ones will be much much easier to craft. Hey so for gear I just have the original Mammon. Should I even try for the Mammon Supra or Lucis anymore? Or will it be like relics where I should just not bother and wait for the new relics.

Lucis is equal stats to a NQ ilvl adamantite mainhand unmelded so i think its worth getting but keep in mind u can beat it with HQ and melding of lower lvl equipment. U need perception for HQ and for the lvl 60 quest u need 3 HQ so thats the overall goal for gear. Interesting that you pointed that out. I had to go back and check my gathering log. They definitely come from the Churning Mists Ephemeral node, but it does list them as Forelands. I will try and get a screen shot next go around.

To respawn Ephemeral node during its time range you need to gather only 2 other nodes but they have to be nodes from diffrent pair in HW nodes tend to be paired with 2 really close to each other.

I just hit 60 and im trying to finish up the quest. ANybody know how to get adamantite? Unspoiled at 11 in Azys Lla. Location is on the north side of the map in the middle. I couldn't HQ it with around perception, but am going to try soon with more if I grab food beforehand. Epheral node Hinderlands 13x 19y, 5 am pop, clear skies, peat moss hidden on 5th slot altho it was hidden, so it changes , granular clay on 8th slot. Grade 5 Carbonized Matter is Chocobo Forest 29,17 same nodes as titanium ore.

It was hidden so you have to unlock it. Didn't see it here. Has anyone come up with a collectibles rotation that consistently puts you above ? Or is it pretty much luck? I'm trying to work on collectibles for scrips but haven't had any success hitting that mark.

Quickest way to get there is from Tailfeather.

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